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DIPOL Weekly Review - TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN
No. 6/2018 (Feb. 5, 2018)
Next step on the way to creating an artificial brain. MIT engineers working on artificial intelligence are getting closer to implementing the concept of neuromorphic computers. Such computers would operate on the basis of semiconductor integrated circuits organized like nerve connections in the brain. Researchers have successfully developed an artificial synapse, the principle of which is similar to the real synapse. The human nervous system consists of about one hundred billion neurons and hundreds of trillions of synapses. Neurons can process and transmit information that is exchanged with other neurons or axons through the network of synapses. The method of establishing connections between neurons determines the speed of information flow and the processing and memorizing of patterns. Synaptic activity of the brain is so intense that in order to match the number of operations performed over a time unit, a million ordinary computers would be needed.
Neuromorphic computers replace processing instructions on a zero/one basis with a more complex network, where many signals are processed in parallel, and each of them has its own weight (can be amplified or weakened). So far, this kind of processing has been the major challenge for building such computers. Researchers at MIT have developed artificial synapses capable of precisely controlling the current in a similar way as the brain controls the amount of ions flowing between neurons. The key to their creation was the right choice of materials. The combined layers of silicon and silicon germanium create a one-dimensional funnel through which electrons can flow only one way. A complete synapse has a diameter of 25 nanometers, and its most important parameter is a small variation of current between each specimen when applying the same voltage, as well as only 1 percent variation from cycle to cycle when applying the voltage many times. It means that the electrons do not get lost somewhere in the structures but flow through the funnel. Thanks to these properties, computer simulations of an "artificial brain" can estimate that a simple system consisting of 3 layers of artificial neurons connected by 2 layers of artificial synapses will recognize handwriting with an accuracy of 95%. Complicated software algorithms currently achieve 97% correctness in this field.
The development of working neuromorphic computers would be a great step towards creating artificial intelligence solutions, including an artificial brain. Systems that can process information in parallel also have a great future in applications that require data processing from multiple sources.
How many channels can be monitored by iVMS-4200 client software? For stable operation of the iVMS-4200 application, the user should obey the recommendations provided by the developer, concerning both the hardware configuration and stream parameters (codec, image resolution, bit rate).
The calculations are based on the two hardware platforms:

Recommended
Processor
Intel Xeon E3-1226 V3 @ 3.30GHz
RAM8 GB
OSMicrosoft Windows 7 (64-bit)
Graphic card
Intel HD Graphics P4600
High performance
ProcessorIntel Core i7-6700K @ 4GHz
RAM8 GB
OSMicrosoft Windows 7 (64-bit)
Graphic cardNVIDIA GeForce GTX1070
Maximum numbers of cameras displayed by iVMS-4200 with software decoding:
CodingResolutionBit rate
(MBps)
FpsMaximum numbers of simultaneously displayed cameras
RecommendedHigh performance
H.2641080p630714
8 MPix163024
H.264+720p1301932
1080p330815
3 Mpix430512
H.265720p1301228
1080p330511
3 Mpix43038
H.265+720p0.5301430
1080p130611
3 Mpix23049
Maximum numbers of cameras displayed by iVMS-4200 with hardware decoding:
("-" means that the graphic card does not support this kind of hardware decoding):
CodingResolutionBit rate
(Mbps)
FpsMaximum numbers of simultaneously displayed cameras
Recommended
High performance
H.2641080p6302525
8 MPix163066
H.264+720p1304545
1080p3302423
3 Mpix4301917
H.265720p130-45
1080p330-23
3 Mpix430-15
H.265+720p0.530-45
1080p130-22
3 Mpix230-13
Single-cable TERRA dSCR multiswitches - Unicable technology. The new dSCR series of multiswitches from TERRA employs single-cable technology (Unicable) that allows for distribution of DVB-S/S2, DVB-T, DAB and FM signals via single coaxial cable. The dSCR acronym means digital Satellite Cable Router, sometimes called channel stacking switch, which converts the received satellite signals to so-called user bands (UBs) that can be received by the connected receivers compliant with the technology. The converted transponders are combined and sent via the single coaxial cable to all the receivers. The communication between the dSCR multiswitch and the receivers uses special protocol defined in the EN50494 (Unicable I) and/or EN50607 (Unicable II) standard, with DiSEqC commands. The biggest advantage of the single-cable system, along with simpler installation of the cabling, is the ability to easily split the signals, similarly to terrestrial TV/radio signals. This also means the possibility to adapt installations distributing terrestrial television signals to the reception and distribution of satellite channels (the number of users connected to one dSCR multiswitch is limited by its characteristics).
Satellite Dish INVERTO IDLB-STCF 120cm (light color)UHF TV Antenna: DIPOL 44/21-60 Tri DigitUniversal QUATRO LNB: Inverto Red Extended 0.3dBOutdoor Antenna Amplifier TERRA MX-062 (FM+VHF & 2xUHF, 30/34dB) DAB / DVB-T Antenna: DIPOL-4/5-128-way SAT / TV / FM Splitter 1>8 Signal4-way SAT/TV/FM Splitter: Signal 1>4FSwitching Power Supply Terra PS202F (20V 2A, Digital SCR)Single-cable dSCR Multiswitch: Terra SRM-521 (class A, passive Terr. TV path)Antenna Amplifier TERRA AB007 (10-17dB, DC pass, Digital SCR)Power Supply ZS300 (12V/300mA, with SDC2 power injector for TV antenna amplifiers)Single-cable dSCR Multiswitch: Terra SRM-521 (class A, passive Terr. TV path)
The diagram above shows an example installation based on TERRA dSCR
cascadable single cable multiswitches SRM-521 R80521
By default, the SRM521 R80521 multiswitch is configured in dynamic mode, with dSCR OUT operating as Unicable port and Legacy OUT as universal (legacy) port that switches into Unicable mode after receiving DiSEqC command from a receiver/STB (compliant with EN50494 or EN50607 standard). It means that each of the two outputs of the multiswitch can independently feed up to 16 receivers (in the EN50607 standard).
An example of configuring a satellite receiver supporting Unicable/dSCR technology
Surveillance video from Hikvision IP camera using H.264 and H.265 codecs. The video recordings available below come from K17592 DS-2CD2025FWD-I camera from the EasyIP 3.0 series. Cameras of the series with 2 MP and 3 MP resolutions use Dark Fighter technology ensuring very high sensitivity (0.005 lx). The recordings have been made with factory settings. The bit rate has been set at 4 Mbps for H.264 video compression and at 2 Mbps for H.265. The screenshots below present video parameter settings for the selected compression methods. The short recordings were made in daylight and at night (with street lighting). Due to the high sensitivity of the camera, it did not switch to black and white in the case of night operation. The following recordings show that regardless of the compression method chosen, the image is of comparable quality. However, the application of the H.265 compression reduces by half the size of the video file on the hard disk.
Coding parameters with H.264 codec
Coding parameters with H.265 codec
Recording from K17592 DS-2CD2025FWD-I,
made during the day, H.264 codec
Recording from K17592 DS-2CD2025FWD-I,
made at night, H.264 codec
Recording from K17592 DS-2CD2025FWD-I,
made during the day, H.265 codec
Recording from K17592 DS-2CD2025FWD-I,
made at night, H.265 codec
When you need a high-speed WiFi network. The AC-based TP-Link Archer C7 AC1750 gigabit router allows users to create highly efficient wired and wireless networks. The 802.11ac wireless connections can provide total data rates up to 1750 Mbps. Thanks to high performance and security of the 802.11ac standard, the users can create fast and reliable home and SOHO/SME networks supporting multiple devices at the same time. The high performance is provided by MIMO technology guarantying smooth transmission of HD video, VoIP communication, online gaming. On the rear of the stylish device there is WPS/Wi-Fi button that activates Wi-Fi Protected Setup. It allows the user to activate WPA2 encryption mechanism to protect the network against external threats.
Key features:
  • Support for 802.11ac standard - the next generation of Wi-Fi networks
  • Simultaneous connections up to 450 Mbps at 2.4 GHz and up to 1300 Mbps at 5 GHz
  • Three detachable external antennas provide stable signal and superior wireless coverage
  • Gigabit Ethernet ports ensure high transmission speed in wired network
  • Two USB 2.0 ports enable the user(s) easy sharing of printers, files, multimedia via local network and the Internet
Wireless Dual-band Gigabit Router: TP-Link Archer C7 AC1750 (2.4&5 GHz)
Router Gigabit TP-Link Archer C7 AC1750 2.4 & 5 GHz N3262
The 802.11ac wireless connections can provide 3 times higher data rates than in the case of 802.11n standard. Thanks to high performance and security of the 802.11ac standard, the users can create fast and reliable home and SOHO networks supporting multiple devices at the same time.
Measurements of optical links with the transmission method. Basic measurements of attenuation of optical links, necessary for qualification tests, are based on the transmission method. With the use of an optical power meter and optical laser source with predetermined output level and high stability, the installer can measure the total attenuation of the whole link, including connectors. However, when the measured attenuation is higher than expected, the fault (a bad splice or connector, excessive bending, factory defect of the cable etc.) cannot be easily found. For such a thorough test it would be necessary to use an optical time-domain reflectometer.
Using the transmission method, the installer should select the appropriate wavelength - depending on the transmission window in which the link is to operate, or according to accepted standards. Without specified requirements, the most comprehensive testing should cover all the wavelengths specific for the type of the fiber used, i.e. 850 nm and 1300 nm for multimode fibers, and 1310 nm, 1550 nm, and 1625 nm in the case of single-mode fibers.
Testing optical links with connections in distribution frames/boxes, it is necessary to calibrate the measuring system. For this purpose the installer can use two patch cords (with connectors compliant with the source of light / power meter and the frame or box, respectively), and suitable optical adapter.
Calibration of the measuring system
Measurement of the attenuation of an optical link
In the case above, the attenuation of the optical link is 6.5 dB (the measured power level of -16.5 dBm compared to -10 dBm obtained during calibration). Most optical power meters can remember the calibration value as a reference point. Then, such meter will show only the attenuation of the tested segment (in the example it would be -6.5 dBm).
New products offered by DIPOL
RF Attenuator DSE TA01-06 (6 dB, 5-1000 MHz)
RF Attenuator DSE TA01-06 (6 dB, 5-1000 MHz) R50160 is intended to reduce RF signal level within 5-1000 MHz range in CATV antenna systems. The device ensures very stable level of attenuation.


SAT RF Attenuator (adjustable 0-20 dB, 5-2400 MHz)
SAT RF Attenuator R50165 is intended to reduce RF signal level within 5-2400 MHz range in S/MATV antenna systems. The adjustable device (0-20 dB) ensures very stable level of the set attenuation.


SMA Plug to SMA Socket Cable (5m)
SMA Plug to SMA Socket Cable (5m) E83313 is designed for connecting a GSM/LTE modem to an outdoor antenna with SMA plug.

Worth reading
Surveillance video in TV antenna system. DIPOL introduced to its offer HDMI (Full HD 1080p/60Hz) to DVB-T encoder/modulator R86111. The device is used in CCTV monitoring systems integrated with TV antenna installations, including S/MATV systems. Via the RF network based on coaxial cables it can transmit surveillance video from a DVR or NVR to many televisions. The R86111 device encodes and modulates Full HD (1920x1080-60p) signal provided to its HDMI input to RF signal in accordance with DVB-T standard (COFDM), so it offers an attractive alternative to installations based on HDMI splitters and cables... >>>more
An example of installation providing access to surveillance video
on multiple televisions connected to antenna system.
The video is fed to the R86111 encoder/modulator
from HDMI output of the K17291 IP camera.
Protect - mobile DVRs
 
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