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DIPOL Weekly Review – TV and SAT TV, CCTV, WLAN
No. 16/2019 (April 22, 2019)
Static negative capacitors can help create more energy-efficient computers. Scientists from the US Department of Energy (DOE) together with colleagues from France and Russia created a permanent, static "negative condenser", a device that 10 years ago was considered impossible to construct, because it would violate the laws of physics. Researchers have found that by connecting a negative capacitor with a positive capacitor in series, they can locally increase the voltage on the positive capacitor, obtaining a higher voltage than in the whole system. In this way, they can distribute electrical energy to regions of the circuit requiring a higher voltage, while the entire circuit is operating at a lower voltage.
In traditional capacitors, the voltage is proportional to the electric charge stored in them. Negative capacitors behave in a reverse way, an increased amount of charge reduces the voltage. Because negative capacitors are parts of larger structures, this phenomenon does not violate energy conservation.
Illustration of the domain wall motion (a-c and b-d) in the capacitor when adding a charge to one side (c).
The shift the domain wall due to charge imbalance causes a negative capacitive effect.
The basic component of the negative capacitor presented by Valerii Vinokur and his colleagues is a filling made of a ferroelectric material, which is similar to a magnet, except that it has an internal electrical polarization, not a magnetic orientation. In a ferroelectric nanoparticle, a positive charge will be present on one surface and negative charges on the other, which creates electric fields that try to depolarize the material. By dividing the nanoparticle into two equal ferroelectric domains with opposite polarity, separated by a boundary called a domain wall, scientists were able to minimize the effect of the total depolarizing electric field. Then, by adding the charge to one of the ferroelectric domains, the scientists moved the position of the domain wall between them. Due to the cylindrical nature of the nanoparticles, the domain wall began to shrink, causing it to move beyond the new point of electrical equilibrium. When the domain wall moves to one side due to a charge imbalance, energy is released. This effect creates a static negative capacity.
Because in everyday life computers are used by everyone almost daily, the energy necessary to run them becomes significant. Research shows that the total electricity consumption of global data centers corresponds to 10 percent of all electricity consumed in the United States. A new physical phenomenon, such as negative capacity, can provide a whole new set of tools to improve the energy efficiency of computers.
Single-cable multiswitch system. Multiswitch systems with quatro LNBs receiving signals from two satellites (e.g. HotBird 13.0E and Astra 19.2E) have to use 8 coaxial cables (RG-6). A Wide Band LNB (e.g. A98222) has two outputs (H and V polarizations) and the distribution of signals from two satellites requires only four coaxial cables between the LNBs and the suitable multiswitch, reducing by half the number of the cables. With single local oscillators operating at 10.41 GHz, such LNBs provide much wider intermediate frequency band (290...2340 MHz) than conventional (legacy) LNBs.
The Wide-band LNB A98222 cooperates with Terra SRM-581 R80581 dSCR multiswitch that has 5 inputs. Two pairs of SAT IF inputs (V1, H1, V2, H2, 290...2340 MHz) should be connected to two Wide-band LNBs A98222, the fifth input (of active terrestrial path) is intended for DVB-T, DAB(+) and FM radio signals.
An Installation company from Klodzko, Poland has deployed a multiswitch system based on TERRA SRM-581 R80581 multiswitches.
The SRM-581 R80581 cascadable multiswitch provides full support for receivers operating in two dynamic modes: SCR (Unicable I - 8 User Bands) and dSCR (Unicable II - 32 User Bands)
The SRM-581 R80581 multiswitch has the following inputs and outputs:
  • inputs and pass-trough paths:
    • SAT IF (290...2340 MHz (V1, H1, V2, H2), to connect satellite signals from two Wide Band LNBs A98222),
    • active Terr. TV (DVB-T/Radio)
  • four pairs of outputs:
    • dSCR Out (enabling the distribution of the signal independently to max. 16 receivers with one coaxial cable from each of the 8 outputs, in accordance with the EN50607 standard)
    • Legacy Out (like in Universal LNB or legacy multiswitches, for connecting "normal" satellite receiver).
IP video intercom system. The system shown below has been installed in a housing development with four single-family homes, all surrounded by a common fence, with access through one gateway. The video door phone system is based on the four-button gate/door station Hikvision DS-KV8402-IMDS-KV8402-IM G73635 and four 7" touch screen monitors DS-KH8300-T G74032. These components are powered with 24 VDC from 8-port PoE switch DS-KAD606-P G74814. Aside from the six PoE ports, the switch has two additional LAN ports that enable network and cascade connections. In the case of local power supplies, the installer could use a typical switch or router without PoE ports.
The system has been connected to the Internet via the TP-Link C6 N3255 router. The gate is controlled with the use of the Bira ES1-001 G74210 electric door strike with steel keeper/latch with 4 mm adjustment range. This model of electric strike can be energized with 12 VAC or VDC. In the system the supply voltage is provided by the G74321 power supply. The electric strike is controlled via a relay located in the gate station.
7777Wireless Dual-band Gigabit Router: TP-Link Archer C6 AC1200 (4x10/100/1000 Mbps)Power Supply for Door Strikes: PULSAR AWT027 (10VA, 11.5/14VAC)PoE Switch: Hikvision DS-KAD606-P (for IP video door phones)Electric Door Strike: Bira ES1-001 (12V AC/DC, adjustable)Strike Plate OKU-031 (short, for Bira EL1, ES1, ELP series)Gate/door Station: Hikvision DS-KV8402-IM (for Villa IP video door phones, 4 buttons, IC RFID)Protective Shield Hikvision DS-KAB01 (for surface mounting of Villa DS-KV8X02-IM door stations)
Block diagram of the IP video intercom system for 4 single-family homes
After pressing a button, the corresponding monitor in the selected apartment starts ringing. After receiving the call, two-way audio/video communication is established, and the resident can release the door strike. In the absence of residents, the call can be redirected to a smartphone and the gate can be opened remotely.
The remote operation via an Android smartphone requires the installation of the Hik-Connect app. The configuration and operation from a PC is performed with the use of the iVMS-4200 client application.
The built-in 256 MB memory in each of the monitors allows for recording photos, messages, as well as for leaving messages in the absence of residents. Additionally, the residents can also communicate with each other.
Protecting power supplies of electronic devices from overvoltages and interference (2). Damage to a computer, television or stereo can occur as a result of overvoltage. It may end up with the replacement of a fuse and/ or varistor, but sometimes the damage affects the whole power supply. An effective protection against such situations is the application of the Acar 504WF RACK P1322 safety multi-outlet extension cord with surge suppressor.
Acar 504WF is a special version from the Acar 504 family of safety multi-outlet extension cords with surge suppressors. A highly efficient RFI filter built into the 504 WF model is an important advantage in the case of powering audio-video devices, measurement systems, computers, communication equipment. Its illuminated power switch indicates the presence of AC voltage in the protected outlets. The included hardware allows for mounting the strip in a 19" RACK cabinet as a 2U module.

Safety Multi-Outlet Extension Cord with Surge Suppressor: ACAR 504WF RACK
View of the ACAR 504WF RACK P1322 safety multi-outlet extension cord with surge suppressor and highly efficient RFI filter
The influence of F-number on the camera image. The F-number of a camera lens refers to the maximum aperture (opening) of the diaphragm. The size of the aperture reflects the number given in the form f / x or Fx (x is the number of the aperture). So, the lower the F-number, the more light reaches the image senor, which meas higher sensitivity of the camera.
CCTV cameras are usually equipped with F1.0, F1.4, or F2.0 lenses. F1.0 means the largest aperture, F1.4 – half of it, and F2.0 – four times smaller.
An F1.0 lens transmitting the maximum of the incident light is used in the Hikvision ColorVu series products that are the part of the TurboHD 5.0 offer. ColorVu cameras are extremely sensitive (0.0005 lx). Such high sensitivity ensures that the cameras generate useful images in light of low intensity, such as provided by street lamps or the moon.
So, why F1.0 is not used everywhere? The production cost of the F1.0 lens is higher than the most commonly used F1.4. But that is not all - an important parameter of the cameras is the depth of field, which determines the range of distance in which the observed objects appear sharp. The higher the F-number, the smaller the aperture through which the light enters the camera and the greater the depth of field. When using ColorVu cameras, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that the depth of field is slightly smaller.
Safe method of extracting optical fibers. Among the types of fiber optic cables, a large group is that with single-tube or multi-tube construction. An example of a single-tube cable is the popular, universal cable DRAKA U-DQ(ZN)BH. A common question asked by installers is the choice of suitable tools for terminating this type of cables.
The most important and indispensable tool is a rotary stripper, e.g. Ideal L5922. This type of tool can perform a number of functions, the most important of which is incision of the tube in which the fibers are placed. The incision is done by turning the blade several times on the surface of the tube. Then the tube can be broken by hand and the loose fragment taken out. This method guarantees 100% safety of the fibers inside the tube. Opening the tube with a regular upholsterer's knife, other type of a fiber stripper or a different tool does not give such a guarantee.
Rotary Coaxial Stripper IDEAL 45-163 (3-5.5mm)
Rotary Coaxial Stripper IDEAL 45-163 L5922 is an indispensable installation tool
In addition to incising tubes, the L5922 stripper can be used to cut the outer sheath/jacket of other types of optical cables, both transversely (if we want to take off e.g. 30-50 cm of the sheath) and longitudinally (useful for cables not equipped with ripcord for tearing the sheath). All the blades are adjustable to control optimum cutting depth and to avoid damaging the internal structure of the cable.
New products offered by DIPOL
Ceiling IP Camera: Hikvision DS-2CD2146G1-I (4MP, 2.8mm, 0.012 lx, IR up to 30m, WDR, IK10, H.265/H.264, AcuSense)
Ceiling IP Camera Hikvision DS-2CD2146G1-I K00423 is dedicated for professional IP CCTV systems. The ceiling camera has been equipped with high quality 4 MP 1/2.7" CMOS sensor providing good video coverage even in very low-light conditions. Along with IR illuminator with range up to 30 m, the camera can also operate in complete darkness. The built-in 2.8 mm lens has 104° viewing angle. The IP67-rated housing of the camera protects the electronics against adverse weather conditions. The camera can be powered conventionally with a 12 VDC source or with the use of PoE option (802.3af).
Protective Shield Hikvision DS-KAB01 (for surface mounting of Villa DS-KV8X02-IM door stations)
Protective Shield Hikvision DS-KAB01 (for surface mounting of Villa DS-KV8X02-IM door stations) G74310 made of stainless steel is dedicated for housing Hikvision DS-KV8X02-IM door stations (Villa series). It protects the electronics and connections.


Gigabit Switch MikroTik RB260GS (CSS106-5G-1S, 5x10/100/1000 Mbps, SFP)
Switch RB260GS (CSS106-5G-1S) N24260 is a 5-port gigabit switch for use in small computer networks. The switch is also equipped with SFP port. The device runs MikroTik SwOS.

Worth reading
Monitoring of an apartment building, based on Hikvision EasyIP 2.0plus cameras. The following figure shows a concept of a video monitoring system covering such a building, based on a Hikvision NVR and IP cameras from the EasyIP 2.0plus series. The outside area around the building is monitored by eight DS-2CD2043G0-I K17635 compact cameras with 4 MP resolution and 2.8 mm lens with 98° viewing angle. Inside the building there are four ceiling cameras DS-2CD2123G0-I K17321 with 2 MP resolution, equipped with 2.8 mm lenses with 114° viewing angle. Both models of the cameras have IR illuminators with range up to 30 m made in EXIR technology ensuring even lighting of the scene at night. The layout of the cameras allows for good identification of any potential vandals who might destroy the facade of the building.
The cameras are powered and connected to the NVR via the N29986 16-port PoE switch. The cameras of the EasyIP 2.0plus series support H265+, H.265, H.264+, H.264 video compression. With the use of two 3 TB hard drives, e.g. M89285, H.265 video compression and continuous recording mode at 25 fps for each camera, the data retention time is 15 days... >>>more
Schematic diagram of IP CCTV system based on Hikvision devices in an apartment building
Surge Protection Installation Box: Signal ZPZ-12 (12 paths, for multiswitch systems)
Signal surge protection boxes
 
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